Analisis Peran Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Sebagai Pemicu Keberhasilan Komersialisasi Inovasi Teknologi di Negara-Negara Asia
Innovation activities are important things that must be done by a country, but unfortunately not all countries can do it, especially in the high-tech industry, because it requires a very large investment. This study aimed to analyze the role of FDI as a trigger for the successful commercialization of high technology innovations in Asian countries. Innovation is something that must be done by a country in order to compete in the international market, but most Asian countries have limitations in terms of capital, technology and skills to do it. One of solution that can be done is to attract as much investment from abroad through foreign direct investment (FDI). Of the 49 countries in Asia according to id.wikipedia.org, 21 countries countries have been selected as research samples. From the result of structual equation modeling (SEM) analysis founds that FDI was not able to trigger and boost innovation activities of countries in Asia, as measured through spending on R&D activities, number of patent applications, and research journals published internationally. The role of FDI in Asian countries is more to assist these countries in producing results from innovation activities.
Keywords: R&D Expenditures, Number of Patent Applications, Number of journal publications, FDI, High-tech export High-tech export
Braunerhjelm, P. dan Thulin, P. (2008). Can countries create comparative advantages? R&D expenditures, high-techexports and country size in 19 OECD countries, 1981–1999. International Economic Journal, 22(1), 95–111.
Chen, Yufen & Chen, Jin. 2009. The impact of FDI on regional technological capabilities: evidence from China. Journal of Knowledge-based Innovation in China, 1(2), pp.143-158, https://doi.org/10.1108/17561410910949391
Chih-Hai Y & Yi-Ju H. (2009). Do Intellectual Property Rights Matter to Taiwan’s Exports? A Dynamic Panel Approach. Pacific Economic Review, 14(4), Pages: 445-579.
Ekananda, M & Parlinggoman, D.,J. (2017). The Role of High-Tech Exports and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) on Economic Growth. European Research Studies Journal Volume, 20(4), 2017.
Gervais D. J. (2009) . (Re)implementing the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights to Foster Innovation.The Journal of World Intellectual Property. 12 (5) 348–370.
Ghazal, R & Zulkhibri, M. (2015). Determinants of innovation outputs in developing countries: Evidence from panel data negative binomial approach. Journal of Economic Studies, 42(2),pp.237-260,
Hasanov, Z, Abada, O & Aktamov, S. (2015). Impact of innovativeness of the country on export performance: evidence from Asian countries. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 17(1), PP 33-41.
Ismail, N., W. (2013). Innovation and High-Tech Trade in Asian Countries. International Conference on Recent Developments in Asian Trade Policy and Integration, 20th and 21st February, 2013.
Kabaklarli, E., Duran, M.S. & and Ucler, Y.T. (2017). The Determinants Of High-Technology Exports: A Panel Data Approach For Selected Oecd Countries. DIEM, 3(1), pp. 888-900. Available at: https://hrcak.srce.hr/187437 (Accessed 26 December 2018).
Kabaklarli, E., Duran, M.S. & Ucler, Y.T. (2018). High-Technology Exports and Economic Growth: Panel Data Analysis For Selected OECD Countries. Forum Scientiae Oeconomia, 6(2)
Khachoo, Q & Sharma, R. (2017). FDI and Incumbent R&D Behavior: Evidence From Indian Manufacturing Sector. Journal of Economic Studies, 44(3) ,pp.380-399, https://doi.org/10.1108/JES-10-2015-0188
Leman E & Ismet, G. (2015). The Effects of Foreign Direct Investment on R&D and Innovations: Panel Data Analysis for Developing Asian Countries. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 195 ( 2015 ) 749 – 758.
Li, Z., Li, Jun & He, B. (2018). Does foreign direct investment enhance or inhibit regional innovation efficiency?: Evidence from China. Chinese Management Studies,12(1),pp.35-55, https://doi.org/10.1108/CMS-02-2017-0034
Mehrara, M., Seijani, S., Rezazadeh K, Abbas. (2017). Determinants of high-tech export in developing countries based on Bayesian model averaging. Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakultet au Rijeci. 35. 199-215. 10.18045/zbefri.2017.1.199.
Olena, I. (2010). Do Stronger Patent Rights Raise High-Tech Exports to the Developing World?. Journal of International Economics, 18(1), Pages 38-47.
Petrariu, R., Bumbac, R & Ciobanu, R. (2013). Innovation: a path to competitiveness and economic growth. The case of CEE countries.Theoretical and Applied Economics, 20(1), pp. 15-26.
Rahman, S., Suwitho & Purwati, A. A. (2019). Commercialization of High-Tech Innovations and Economic Growth in the Most Innovative Countries in the World. Proceedings of the IIUM International Conference on Business Management (IICBM 2019): 080-067.
Sandu, S., & Ciocanel, B. (2014). Impact of R&D and Innovation on High-tech Export. Procedia Economics and Finance 15 80-90.
Shukla, S. (2017). Innovation and Economic Growth: A Case Of India. Humanities & Social Science Review, 5(2), pp 64-70.
Weishi, G.,U, Titus O., A, & Yan, Y. (2008). The Contribution of Foreign Direct Investment to China’s Export Performance: Evidence from Disaggregated Sectors. Selected Paper prepared for presentation at the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, July, 2008.
Wu, Y. (2010). Innovation and Economic Growth in China. University of Western Australia, Perth. Zhang, K., H. (2006). FDI and Host Countries’ Exports: The Case of China. Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, 59(1), pages 113-127.