Analisis Faktor Risiko Tindakan Restrain pada Pasien Rawat Inap dengan Gangguan Jiwa

  • Jumriani Jumriani , Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar, Indonesia
  • Rini Rachmawaty Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar
  • Erfina Erfina Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar


This literature review aims to summarize research results regarding risk factors for restraint in hospitalized mental disorder patients. The literature search used seven databases, namely PuBmed, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Garuda; Google Scholar; and Wiley in the 2013-2023 range. As a result of the research, eleven studies were included in the review, where increased restraint risk factors were divided into three: 1) sociodemographic characteristics (immigrant patients, male, young age, married, rural background, and low socioeconomic); 2) clinical factors (active and aggressive behavior, psychotic/bipolar disorders, cognitive and mood disorders, previous psychiatric disorders, long hospitalization and previous hospitalization, and alcohol/drug dependence); 3) referral factors (forced referrals from emergency departments, from outpatient centers/private doctors, and police referrals). In conclusion, there are three factors that can increase the risk of restraint, namely: sociodemographic characteristics, patient clinical factors, and referral factors.


Keywords: Mental Disorder Patients, Hospitalization, Restraint


Chieze, M., Courvoisier, D., Kaiser, S., Wullschleger, A., Hurst, S., Bardet-Blochet, A., Ourahmoune, A., & Sentissi, O. (2021). Prevalence and risk Factors for Seclusion and Restraint at Geneva’s Adult Psychiatric Hospital in 2017. The European Journal of Psychiatry, 35(1), 24–32.

Chieze, Marie, Kaiser, S., Courvoisier, D., Hurst, S., Sentissi, O., Fredouille, J., & Wullschleger, A. (2021). Prevalence and Risk Factors for Seclusion and Restraint in Old-Age Psychiatry Inpatient Units. BMC Psychiatry, 21(82), 1–10.

Flemmerer, M., Bühling-Schindowski, F., Baumgardt, J., & Bechdolf, A. (2023). Predictors of the Use of Restraint in Inpatient Psychiatric Care among Patients Admitted Via the Emergency Department. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 28(162), 37–43.

Geng, F., Jiang, F., Conrad, R., Liu, T., Liu, Y., Liu, H., & Tang, Y. (2021). Elevated Rates of Restraint and Seclusion in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in China and Their Associated Factors. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 52(5), 939–944.

Goulet, M.-H., Larue, C., & Dumais, A. (2017). Evaluation of Seclusion and Restraint Reduction Programs in Mental Health: A Systematic Review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, S135917891, 1–8.

Gowda, G. S., Lepping, P., Noorthoorn, E. O., Ali, S. F., Kumar, C. N., Raveesh, B. N., & Math, S. B. (2018). Restraint Prevalence and Perceived Coercion Among Psychiatric Inpatients From South India: A Prospective Study. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 8(36), 10–16.

Gowda, G. S., Noorthoorn, E. O., Kumar, C. N., Nanjegowda, R. B., & Math, S. B. (2016). Clinical Correlates and Predictors of Perceived Coercion among Psychiatric Inpatients: A Prospective Pilot Study. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 22, 34–40.

Hotzy, F., Moetteli, S., Theodoridou, A., Schneeberger, A. R., Seifritz, E., & Hoff, P. (2018). Clinical Course and Prevalence of Coercive Measures: An Observational Study Among Involuntarily Hospitalised Psychiatric Patients. Swiss Medical Weekly, 148, 1–8.

Kalisova, L., Raboch, J., Nawka, A., Sampogna, G., Cihal, L., Kallert, T. W., Onchev, G., Karastergiou, A., Vecchio, V. Del, Kiejna, A., Adamowski, T., Torres-Gonzales, F., Cervilla, J. A., Priebe, S., Giacco, D., Kjellin, L., Dembinskas, A., & Fiorillo, A. (2014). Do Patient and Ward-Related Characteristics Influence the Use of Coercive Measures? Results From the EUNOMIA International Study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(10), 1619–1629.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2019). Hasil Utama RISKESDAS 2018.

Knutzen, M., Bjørkly, S., Eidhammer, G., Lorentzen, S., Mjøsund, N. H., Opjordsmoen, S., Sandvik, L., & Friis, S. (2014). Characteristics of Patients Frequently Subjected to Pharmacological and Mechanical Restraint—A Register Study in Three Norwegian Acute Psychiatric Wards. Psychiatry Research, 215(1), 127–133.

Kuivalainen, S., Vehvil€ainen-Julkunen, K., Louheranta, O., Putkonen, A., Repo-Tiihonen, E., & Tiihonen, J. (2017). De-Escalation Techniques Used, and Reasons for Seclusion and Restraint, in a Forensic Psychiatric Hospital. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 26(5), 513–524.

Ling, S., Cleverley, K., & Perivolaris, A. (2015). Understanding Mental Health Service User Experiences of Restraint Through Debriefing: A Qualitative Analysis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 60(9), 386–392.

Mariyati, Hamid, A. Y. S., & Daulima, N. H. C. (2018). The Experience of Restraint-Use among Patients with Violent Behaviors in Mental Health Hospital. Enfermería Clínica, 28(1), 295–299.

Perers, C., Bäckström, B., Johansson, B. A., & Rask, O. (2022). Methods and strategies for reducing seclusion and restraint in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatient care. Psychiatric quarterly, 93(1), 107-136.

Pérez-Revuelta, J. I., Torrecilla-Olavarrieta, R., García-Spínola, E., López-Martín, Á., Guerrero-Vida, R., Juan, J. M. M.-S., Rodríguez-Gómez, C., Pascual-Paño, J. M., González-Sáiz, F., & Villagrán-Moreno, J. M. (2021). Factors Associated with the use of Mechanical Restraint in a Mental Health Hospitalization Unit: 8-Year Retrospective Analysis. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 28(6), 1052–1064.

Silva, B., Golay, P., & Morandi, S. (2018). Factors Associated with Involuntary Hospitalisation for Psychiatric Patients in Switzerland: A Retrospective Study. BMC Psychiatry, 18(401), 1–10.

Suwito, S., Dwiantoro, L., & Anggorowati, A. (2023). Upaya Mengurangi Restraint di Rumah Sakit Jiwa: Literatur Review. Jurnal Keperawatan, 15(3), 1347-1354.

WHO. (2019). Mental Disorders. World Health Organization.

Yusuf, A., PK., R. F., Nihayati, H. E., & Tristiana, R. D. (2019). Kesehatan Jiwa Pendekatan Holistik Dalam Asuhan Keperawatan. Mitra Wacana Media.
Abstract viewed = 48 times
pdf downloaded = 49 times