Faktor Penghambat Kembali Bekerja pada Pasien Gangguan Mental Umum

  • Eliza Cahyani Universitas Indonesia
  • Novy Helena Catharina Daulima Universitas Indonesia
  • Giur Hargiana Universitas Indonesia


This research aims to analyze the factors that prevent individuals who experience mental disorders in general from being able to return to work. The method used is a systematic review by searching for articles tailored to formulating research questions with PEO formulations in seven databases: Scopus, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, Proquest, Sage Journals, Oxford, Taylor & Francis. The research found two categories: internal factors, job status, workability, positive attitude, symptom severity, self-efficacy, and male. In contrast, external factors were supervisor support, loss of work contract, initial unemployment, low control over work, job tension, inflexible working hours, and no possibility of working from home. In conclusion, recovery can be achieved if internal and external factors work together and contribute positively to the client.

Keywords: Inhibiting Factors, Common Mental Disorders, Return to Work


Amin, R., Mittendorfer-Rutz, E., Björkenstam, E., Virtanen, M., Helgesson, M., Gustafsson, N., & Rahman, S. (2023). Time Period Effects in Work Disability Due to Common Mental Disorders Among Young Employees in Sweden - A Register-Based Cohort Study Across Occupational Classes and Employment Sectors. European Journal of Public Health, 33(2), 272–278. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckad026

Bertilsson, M., Niederberger, R., & de Rijk, A. (2023). Work Accommodations for Employees with Common Mental Disorders and Associated Manager-Related Determinants: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Swedish Managers. Disability and Rehabilitation. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2023.2269861

Bjørndal, M. T., Giæver, F., Aschim, B. M., Gjengedal, R. G. H., Lending, H. D., Bull-Hansen, B., Hannisdal, M., & Hjemdal, O. (2022). Work after Mental-Health-Related Absence: A Qualitative Study of Perceived Change After A Combination of Metacognitive Therapy and Work-Focused Interventions. BMC Public Health, 22(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-14378-0

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHST). (2024). Mental Health Mental Health - Return to Work on this page. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/psychosocial/mh/return_to_work.html

Chaplin, E., McCarthy, J., Ali, S., Marshall-Tate, K., Xenitidis, K., Harvey, D., Childs, J., Srivastava, S., McKinnon, I., Robinson, L., Allely, C. S., Hardy, S., Tolchard, B., & Forrester, A. (2022). Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorders, and Neurodevelopmental Conditions Amongst 9088 Lower Court Attendees in London, UK. BMC Psychiatry, 22(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-022-04150-4

Dattani, S., Rodés-Guirao, L., Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2023). Mental Health. https://ourworldindata.org/mental-health

Edinoff, A. N., Nix, C. A., Hollier, J., Sagrera, C. E., Delacroix, B. M., Abubakar, T., Cornett, E. M., Kaye, A. M., & Kaye, A. D. (2021). Benzodiazepines: Uses, Dangers, and Clinical Considerations. Neurology international, 13(4), 594–607. https://doi.org/10.3390/neurolint13040059

Fukuura, Y., & Shigematsu, Y. (2021). The Work Ability of People with Mental Illnesses: A Conceptual Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(19). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910172

Gjengedal, R. G. H., Osnes, K., Reme, S. E., Lagerveld, S. E., Johnson, S. U., Lending, H. D., Sandin, K., Bjørndal, M. T., & Hjemdal, O. (2022). Changes in Depression Domains As Predictors of Return to Work in Common Mental Disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 308(April), 520–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.04.080

Gühne, U., Pabst, A., Kösters, M., Hasan, A., Falkai, P., Kilian, R., Allgöwer, A., Ajayi, K., Baumgärtner, J., Brieger, P., Frasch, K., Heres, S., Jäger, M., Küthmann, A., Putzhammer, A., Schneeweiß, B., Schwarz, M., Becker, T., Breilmann, J., & Riedel-Heller, S. G. (2022). Predictors of Competitive Employment in Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: Results From An Observational, Cross-Sectional Study in Germany. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 17(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12995-022-00345-3

Hansmann, M., Beller, J., Maurer, F., & Kröger, C. (2022). Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Employees with Mental Disorders or Musculoskeletal Diseases after Sickness-Related Absence: Validation of the German Version of the Return-to-Work Self-Efficacy Scale. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(16). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191610093

Hedlund, Å., Kristofferzon, M. L., Boman, E., & Nilsson, A. (2021). Are Return to Work Beliefs, Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Health Related to Return-to-Work Intentions Among Women on Long-Term Sick Leave for Common Mental Disorders? A Cross-Sectional Study Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10562-w

Hedlund, Å., Nilsson, A., Boman, E., & Kristofferzon, M. L. (2022). Predictors of Return to Work And Psychological Well-Being Among Women During/After Long-Term Sick Leave Due to Common Mental Disorders - A Prospective Cohort Study Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Health and Social Care in the Community, 30(6), e5245–e5258. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13943

Helgesson, M., Gustafsson, K., & Leineweber, C. (2023). Psychosocial and Organisational Work Factors As Predictors of Sickness Absence Among Professionally Active Adults with Common Mental Disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 23(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-023-05020-3

Mishima, M., Adachi, H., & Mishima, C. (2020). Number of Previous Absences Is a Predictor of Sustained Attendance after Return-to-Work in Workers with Absence due to Common Mental Disorders: A Cohort 3-Year Study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62(2), 108–112. https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001763

Mental, G. B. D., & Collaborators, D. (2022). Global, Regional, and National Burden of 12 Mental Disorders In 204 Countries and Territories, 1990–2019: A Systematic Analysis For The Global Burden Of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Psychiatry, 9(2), 137–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00395-3

Plana-Ripoll, O., Weye, N., Knudsen, A. K., Hakulinen, C., Madsen, K. B., Christensen, M. K., Agerbo, E., Laursen, T. M., Nordentoft, M., Timmermann, A., Whiteford, H., Øverland, S., Iburg, K. M., & McGrath, J. J. (2023). The Association between Mental Disorders and Subsequent Years of Working Life: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 10(1), 30–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(22)00376-5

Rissanen, P., Autio, R., Näppilä, T., Fröjd, S., & Pirkola, S. (2021). Factors Associated with Returning to Work After Long Term Absence Due to Mental Disorders. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications, 8(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-021-00952-1

Shiri, R., Turunen, J., Kausto, J., Leino-Arjas, P., Varje, P., Väänänen, A., & Ervasti, J. (2022). The Effect of Employee-Oriented Flexible Work on Mental Health: A Systematic Review. Healthcare (Switzerland), 10(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10050883

Sikora, A., Schneider, G., Wegewitz, U., & Bültmann, U. (2022). Employees Receiving Inpatient Treatment for Common Mental Disorders in Germany: Factors Associated with Time to First and Full Return to Work. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 32(1), 114–127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10926-021-09985-4

Skagseth, M., Fimland, M. S., Rise, M. B., Nilsen, T. I. L., & Aasdahl, L. (2021). Return-to-Work Self-Efficacy After Occupational Rehabilitation for Musculoskeletal and Common Mental Health Disorders: Secondary Outcomes of A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 53(1). https://doi.org/10.2340/16501977-2787

Subramaniam, M., Zhang, Y., Shahwan, S., Vaingankar, J. A., Satghare, P., Teh, W. L., Roystonn, K., Goh, C. M. J., Maniam, Y., Tan, Z. L., Tay, B., Verma, S., & Chong, S. A. (2022). Employment of Young People with Mental Health Conditions: Making It Work. Disability and Rehabilitation, 44(10), 2033–2043. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2020.1822932

Suijkerbuijk, Y., Nieuwenhuijsen, K., Schaafsma, F., & Jansen, L. (2022). Predictors for Time Until Return To Work and Duration of Sickness Absence in Unemployed Workers with Psychological Problems; A Secondary Data-Analysis of Two Trials and One Cohort Study. Safety and Health at Work, 13, S274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2021.12.1608

Yang, Q., Xing, Q., Yang, Q., & Gong, Y. (2022). Classification for Psychiatric Disorders Including Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder Using Machine Learning. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 20, 5054–5064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2022.09.014
Abstract viewed = 4 times
pdf downloaded = 3 times