Sudden Shift to English Online Learning: Nursing Students’ Anxiety Levels

  • Santa Maya Pramusita Universitas Pelita Harapan
  • Komilie Situmorang Universitas Pelita Harapan
  • Dwi Yulianto Nugroho Universitas Pelita Harapan


COVID-19 pandemic has forced educational institutions in Indonesia to convert face-to-face learning into online learning. This sudden change certainly brings many challenges, one of which is related to students’ anxiety. This research aims to identify the anxiety level of nursing students at Pelita Harapan University while learning English virtually. Quantitative method was applied, with a Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) questionnaire as an instrument. Second year nursing students who had passed the English for Nurses course were the population of this study. To generate the sample, the researchers utilized convenience sampling technique, resulting in 182 respondents. The results showed that 69.8% of respondents felt moderately anxious during the English online class. In addition, test anxiety was the most common anxiety category experienced by nursing students. It made students afraid of failing to get good grades, being overwhelmed in understanding the material, nervous when they must speak English, and panicking when they do not comprehend the oral feedback given by the teacher in synchronous class. The results of this study are expected to provide insight to educators to develop strategies to reduce students' anxiety levels.

Keywords: Anxiety, English, Nursing, Pandemic


Agustina, D. Matra, S.D., Karimah, S. (2020). Challenges of Having Online Learning Activities: University Students’ Perspectives. The International English Language Teachers and Lecturers Conference, 9–14.

Al-Rawashdeh, A. Z., Mohammed, E. Y., Al Arab, A. R., Alara, M., Al-Rawashdeh, B., & AlRawashdeh, B. (2021). Advantages and Disadvantages of Using e-Learning in University Education: Analyzing Students’ Perspectives. Electronic Journal of ELearning, 19(3), 107–117.

Apuke, O. D. (2017). Quantitative Research Methods: A Synopsis Approach. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (Kuwait Chapter), 6(10), 40–46.

Arkorful, V.& Abaidoo, N. (2015). The Role of E-learning advantages and disadvantages of its adoption in Higher Education. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 12(1), 29–43.

Aydin, S., Akkas, F.D., Turnuk, T., Beydilli, A.B., Saydam, I. (2020). Test Anxiety among Foreign Language Learners: A Qualitative Study. The Qualitative Report, 4290–4309.

Bakia, M., Shear, L., Toyama, Y., Lassater, A. (2012). Understanding the Implications of Online Learning for Educational Productivity.

Bergara, A. D. (2018). Characterizing and Dealing with Anxiety in The Foreign Language Classroom. Universidad del Pais Vasco.

Cakici, D. (2016). The Correlation among EFL Learners’ Test Anxiety, Foreign Language Anxiety and Language Achievement. English Language Teaching, 190–203.

Dewaele, J. M. (2017). The Dynamic Interactions in Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Foreign Language Enjoyment of Pupils Aged 12 to 18. A Pseudo-longitudinal Investigation. Journal of The European Second Language Association, 1(1), 12–22.

Dhull, I. & Sakshi, M. (2017). Online Learning. International Education and Research Journal, 3(8), 32–34.

Dutra, R. & Finger, I. (2019). Age and Proficiency in Foreign Language Anxiety. Caderno de Letras, 209–220.

Gerencheal, B. (2016). Gender Differences in Foreign Language Anxiety at an Ethiopian University: Mizan-Tepi University Third Year English Major Students in Focus. African Journal of Education and Practice, 1(1), 1–16.

Halter, M. J. (2014). Varcarolis’ Foundation of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing.

Hassani, S. & Rajab, A. (2012). General Communication Anxiety among EFL Students: a Case of Iranian Students of Intensive English Programs. The 8th International Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) Seminar - Aligning Theoretical Knowledge with Professional Practice, 410–418.

Hayatdavoudi, J., & Kassaian, Z. (2013). The Relationship between Language Anxiety and Psycho-physiological Responses to Oral Performance: A Study on Iranian EFL Students. The Iranian EFL Journal, 9(2), 9–21.

Horwitz, E.K., Horwitz, M.B., Cope, J. (1986). Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125–132.

Keliat, B. A. (2012). Proses keperawatan kesehatan jiwa. EGC.

Kentnor, H. (2015). Distance Education and the Evolution of Online Learning in the United States. Curriculum and Teaching Dialogue, 17(1&2), 21–34.

Kusmayanti, I.N., Hendryanti, R., Suwarsono, L. W. (2022). Exploring Indonesian University Students’ Speaking Anxiety in Online English Medium Classes (EMI). Bahasa Dan Seni: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, Dan Pengajarannya, 209–222.

Lu, Z., & Liu, M. (2015). An Investigation of Chinese University EFL Learner’s Foreign Language Reading Anxiety, Reading Strategy Use and Reading Comprehension Performance. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 5(1), 65–85.

Meylani, R., Bitter R, Legacy, J. (2015). Desirable Characteristics of an Ideal Online Learning EnvironmentNo Title. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 5(1), 1–15.

Mohammed, G.M.S. & Mudhsh, B. A. D. M. (2021). The Effects of COVID-19 on EFL Learners’ Anxiety at the University of Bisha. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ) Special Issue on Covid 19 Challenges, 1, 209–221.

Mukhtar, K., Javed, K., Arooj, M., & Sethi, A. (2020). Advantages, Limitations and Recommendations for online learning during COVID-19 pandemic era. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 36, 27–31.

Mulyani, Fidyati, Suryani, Suri, M., H. (2021). University Students’ Perceptions through E-Learning Implementation during COVID-19 Pandemic: Positive or Negative Features Dominate? Studies in English Language and Education, 8(1), 197–211.

Nan, J. & Haoda, F. (2020). Research on Students’ Anxiety in Online English Classes during the Epidemic. 3rd International Conference on Humanities Education and Social Sciences, 627–633.

Nguyen, T. (2015). The Effectiveness of Online Learning : Beyond No Significant Difference and Future Horizons. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 309–319.

Nurhaeni. (2019). Students’ Anxiety in Language Learning: Genders Difference. Eduvelop, 2(2), 81–86.

Nurindah, L.S. & Nggawu, L. O. (2019). English for Nursing Purposes (ENP): Investigating the Students, Academicians, and Administrators’ Language Needs at Mandala Waluya Health Institution. ESP Journal, 252–276.

Pahargyan, T. (2021). Students’ Anxiety in Speaking English during Distance Learning. UC Journal: ELT, Linguistics, and Literature Journal, 2(1), 1–13.

Pakpahan, E.M. & Gultom, I. (2020). Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety in Online Learning. J-ELLiT (Journal of English Language, Literature, and Teaching), 4(2), 47–51.

Pratama, M.D., Ibrahim, N. (2020). Students’ Perspectives: E-Learning During COVID-19 Pandemic. Indonesian Journal of Integrated English Language Teaching, 6(2), 16–25.

Salmani-Nodoushan, M. A. (2020). English for Specific Purposes: Traditions, Trends, Directions. Studies in English Language and Education, 7(1), 247–268.

Sanei, O. (2016). Investigating Anxiety Symptoms and Reactions within EFL Learners’ Oral Narratives: The Case of Intermediate Level Students. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(5), 902–912.

Singh, V. & Thurman, A. (2019). How many ways can we define online learning? A systematic literature review of definitions of online learning. American Journal of Distance Education, 33(4), 289–306.

Skelton, J.R. & Whetsone, J. (2012). English for Medical Purposes and Academic Medicine: looking for common ground. Iberica, 24(87–102).

Soffa, N. F. (2015). Correlational Study between Gender and Foreign Language Anxiety (FLA) among Junior Students of English Study Program at Universitas Brawijaya. Brawijaya University.

Solimun, & Fernandes, A., A., R. (2018). The mediation effect of customer satisfaction in the relationship between service quality, service orientation, and marketing mix strategy to customer loyalty. Journal of Management Development, 37(1), 76–87.

Songkram, N. (2015). E-learning system in virtual learning environment to develop creative thinking for learners in higher education. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 174, 674–679.

Sperling, R. A., Reeves, P. M., Gervais, A. L., & Sloan, J. O. (2017). Development and Validation of the Self-Regulated Learning Test Anxiety Scale. Psychology, 8, 2295–2320.

Subekti, A. S. (2018). Investigating the Relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and Oral Performance of Non-English Major University Students in Indonesia. Dinamika Ilmu, 18(1), 15–35.

Sukmawati, S. & Syamsuriyati, S. (2020). Conversational Pocket untuk Meningkatkan Keterampilan Bahasa Inggris Bagi Perawat dan Bidan di Puskesmas Cendrawasih. Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat Membangun Negeri, 4(2), 44–54.

Sumarsono, D., Haryadi, S., Bagis, A. K. (2021). When Blended Learning is Forced in The Amid of COVID-19: What Happen on EFL Learners’ Speaking Anxiety? JOLLT (Journal of Languages and Language Teaching), 9(3), 305–315.

Szyszka, M. (2017). Pronunciation learning strategies and language anxiety. Springer Nature.

Toyama, M. & Yamazaki, Y. (2018). Exploring the Components of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale in the
Context of Japanese Undergraduates. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education.

Valizadeh, M. (2021). Foreign Language Anxiety in Virtual Classrooms during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey. St. Theresa Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(1), 54–80.

Videbeck, S. L. (2011). Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (5th ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health.

Wendiyarti, J. (2022). Students’ Anxiety in Learning English (A Descriptive Study to the Seventh Grade Students of SMPN 03 Mempawah Hilir in the Academic Year of 2021/2022. IKIP PGRI Pontianak.

Wiratman, A. Rahmadani, E. (2022). The COVID-19 Pandemic and Online Learning: Challenges For University Students. Indonesian Journal of Research and Educational Review, 1(3), 316–325.

Wooten, R. H. (2008). Mental health issues for Athletic trainers. In The athetic trainer’s guide to psychology intervention and referral (pp. 197–218). Slack Incorporated.

Yih, Y.J., Chin, V. Ling, T. H. (2017). The Role of Gender in English Language Learning Anxiety among Tertiary Students. E-Academia Journal, 6(1), 14–22.

Yuzulia, I. (2021). The Challenges of Online Learning During Pandemic: Students’ Voice. Wanastra: Jurnal Bahasa Dan Sastra, 13(1), 8–12.

Zeidner, M. (2007). Test anxiety in Educational Contexts: Concepts, Findings, and Future Directions. In Emotion in education (pp. 165–184). Elsevier Academic Press.
How to Cite
Pramusita, S., Situmorang, K., & Nugroho, D. (2022). Sudden Shift to English Online Learning: Nursing Students’ Anxiety Levels. Linguistic, English Education and Art (LEEA) Journal, 6(1), 162-176.
Abstract viewed = 0 times
PDF downloaded = 0 times