Tekanan Kompetisi pada Atlet Remaja Pencak Silat Kategori Tanding: Sebuah Ulasan tentang Pentingnya Peran Orang Tua dan Pelatih

  • Ardi Setyo Nugroho Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
  • Galih Prastyo Utomo Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
  • Bambang Purwanto Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
  • Sulistiawati Sulistiawati Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya
Keywords: Kata kunci: Stres Psikologi, Kompetisi, Pencak Silat, Orang tua, Pelatih

Abstract

Abstract

Physical activity from many studies has proven to have a positive impact on mental health. But also intense physical activity over a long period, induce athletes to feel depressed actually harm mental health. Adolescent athletes have the load of undergoing special training and competition to get high hours of competition. Psychological stresses have an impact on emotional stress associated with intensive training and competition demands, until induce a reduction in athletes' performance abilities and skill levels when competing. Psychological stress be one of induce failure to reach the peak of achievement. Environmental support, especially parents and coaches, play an important role in supporting adolescent athletes learn about self-control over stress (coping). Specific support and strategies, based on the experience provided by parents and coaches, provide valuable positive encouragement for adolescent athletes to deal with psychological stresses during competition. Support from parents and coaches increase protective factors such as optimism, can help athletes deal with psychological stress during competition. This article reviews the competition pressures on adolescent pencak silat athlete in the category tanding, with the perspective of the role of parents and coaches as the main environment of adolescent athletes. See not many scientific articles that discuss the pressure of competition from this point of perspective.

Keywords: Psychological stress, Competition, Pencak silat, Coach, Parents

 

References

Ariza-Vargas, L., Domínguez-Escribano, M., López-Bedoya, J., & Vernetta-Santana, M. (2011). The effect of anxiety on the ability to learn gymnastic skills: A study based on the schema theory. Sport Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.25.2.127

Arnold, R., Fletcher, D., & Daniels, K. (2017). Organisational stressors, coping, and outcomes in competitive sport. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1184299


Cho, S., Choi, H., & Kim, Y. (2019). The relationship between perceived coaching behaviors, competitive trait anxiety, and athlete burnout: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081424
Christo, K., Prabhakaran, R., Lamparello, B., Cord, J., Miller, K. K., Goldstein, M. A., Gupta, N., Herzog, D. B., Klibanski, A., & Misra, M. (2008). Bone metabolism in adolescent athletes with amenorrhea, athletes with eumenorrhea, and control subjects. Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-2392


Crane, J., & Temple, V. (2015). A systematic review of dropout from organized sport among children and youth. European Physical Education Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X14555294

Cresswell, S. L., & Eklund, R. C. (2007). Athlete burnout and organizational culture: An English rugby replication. International Journal of Sport Psychology.

Daley, A. (2008). Exercise and depression: A review of reviews. In Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-008-9105-z

Difiori, J. P., Benjamin, H. J., Brenner, J. S., Gregory, A., Jayanthi, N., Landry, G. L., & Luke, A. (2014). Overuse injuries and burnout in youth sports: A position statement from the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093299

Dunn, J. G. H., Dunn, J. C., Gotwals, J. K., Vallance, J. K. H., Craft, J. M., & Syrotuik, D. G. (2006). Establishing construct validity evidence for the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2005.04.003

Engebretsen, L., Steffen, K., Bahr, R., Broderick, C., Dvorak, J., Janarv, P. M., Johnson, A., Leglise, M., Mamisch, T. C., Mckay, D., Micheli, L., Schamasch, P., Singh, G. D., Stafford, D. E. J., & Steen, H. (2010). The international olympic committee consensus statement on age determination in high-level young athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2010.073122

Faizal, A., & Hadi, F. K. (2019). Gambaran Faktor - Faktor Penyebab Masalah Berat Badan (Overweight) Atlet Pencak Silat Pada Masa Kompetisi. Jurnal Ilmiah Sport Coaching and Education, 3(1), 65–78. https://doi.org/10.21009/JSCE.03107

Fletcher, D., Hanton, S., Mellalieu, S. D., & Neil, R. (2012). A conceptual framework of organizational stressors in sport performers. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01242.x
Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2005). The perils of perfectionism in sports and exercise. Current Directions in Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00326.x

Gerber, M., Kalak, N., Lemola, S., Clough, P. J., Perry, J. L., Pühse, U., Elliot, C., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., & Brand, S. (2013). Are adolescents with high mental toughness levels more resilient against stress? Stress and Health. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2447

Giel, K. E., Hermann-Werner, A., Mayer, J., Diehl, K., Schneider, S., Thiel, A., & Zipfel, S. (2016). Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes. International Journal of Eating Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22511
Goodger, K., Gorely, T., Lavallee, D., & Harwood, C. (2007). Burnout in sport: A systematic review. In Sport Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.21.2.127

Gould, D. (1996). Personal motivation gone awry: Burnout in competitive athletes. Quest. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1996.10484197

Gould, D., Chung, Y., Smith, P., & White, J. (2006). Future directions in coaching life skills: Understanding high school coaches’ views and needs. Athletic Insight.

Gould, D., Lauer, L., Rolo, C., Jannes, C., & Pennisi, N. (2006). Understanding the role parents play in tennis success: A national survey of junior tennis coaches. In British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.024927

Gulliver, A., Griffiths, K. M., & Christensen, H. (2012). Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-12-157

Gustafsson, H., & Skoog, T. (2012). The mediational role of perceived stress in the relation between optimism and burnout in competitive athletes. Anxiety, Stress and Coping. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2011.594045

Gustama, K., Firlando, R., & Syafutra, W. (2021). Hubungan Daya Ledak Otot Tungkai dengan Keterampilan Tendangan Lurus Atlet Pencak Silat. Gelanggang Olahraga: Jurnal Pendidikan Jasmani Dan Olahraga, 5(1), 29–39. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31539/jpjo.v5i1.2860

Hamer, M., Stamatakis, E., & Steptoe, A. (2009). Dose-response relationship between physical activity and mental health: The Scottish Health Survey. British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2008.046243

Hanton, S., Wadey, R., & Connaughton, D. (2005). Debilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety: A qualitative examination of elite performers. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390500238499

Hedstrom, R., & Gould, D. (2004). Research in Youth Sports: Critical Issues Status, White Paper Summaries of the Existing Literature. Institute for the Study of Youth Sports College. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2008.04.008

Herring, S. A., Boyajian-O’Neill, L. A., Coppel, D. B., Daniels, J. M., Gould, D., Grana, W., Hong, E., Indelicato, P., Jaffe, R., Joy, E., Kibler, W. Ben, Lowe, W., & Putukian, M. (2006). Psychological issues related to injury in athletes and the team physician: A consensus statement. In Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.
https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31802b37a6
House, S., Loud, K., & Shubkin, C. (2013). Female athlete triad for the primary care pediatrician. In Current Opinion in Pediatrics. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000033

Ilham, Z. (2021). Peranan psikologi olahraga terhadap atlet. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pendidikan Kepelatihan Olahraga, 1(2), 274–282. http://conference.um.ac.id/index.php/pko/article/view/2177

IPSI. (2012). MUNAS IPSI 2012: Peraturan Pertandingan Pencak Silat
.
Jayanthi, N., Pinkham, C., Dugas, L., Patrick, B., & LaBella, C. (2013). Sports Specialization in Young Athletes: Evidence-Based Recommendations. Sports Health. https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738112464626

Jensen, S. N., Ivarsson, A., Fallby, J., Dankers, S., & Elbe, A. M. (2018). Depression in Danish and Swedish elite football players and its relation to perfectionism and anxiety. Psychology of Sport and Exercise.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.02.008

Keegan, R., Spray, C., Harwood, C., & Lavallee, D. (2010). The motivational atmosphere in youth sport: Coach, parent, and peer influences on motivation in specializing sport participants. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200903421267

Kementerian Luar Negeri, R. (2019). Pencak Silat ditetapkan sebagai Warisan Budaya Tak Benda Dunia oleh UNESCO. Kemlu. Go. Id, 1–7.

Kerr, G. A., & Stirling, A. E. (2012). Parents’ Reflections on their Child's Experiences of Emotionally Abusive Coaching Practices. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2011.608413
Knight, C. J., Neely, K. C., & Holt, N. L. (2011). Parental behaviors in team sports: How do female athletes want parents to behave? Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2010.525589
Laborde, S., Dosseville, F., Wolf, S., Martin, T., & You, M. (2016). Consequences and antecedents of debilitative precompetitive emotions. Psychologie Française. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psfr.2016.05.002

Lundqvist, C., Kenttä, G., & Raglin, J. S. (2011). Directional anxiety responses in elite and sub-elite young athletes: intensity of anxiety symptoms matters. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01102.x

Manuel, J. C., Shilt, J. S., Curl, W. W., Smith, J. A., DuRant, R. H., Lester, L., & Sinal, S. H. (2002). Coping with sports injuries: An examination of the adolescent athlete. Journal of Adolescent Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00400-7

Mariati, S., Ramadi, R., & Vai, A. (2018). Pengaruh Metode Latihan Front Cone Hops Terhadap Power Otot Tungkai Atlet Remaja Putra Pencak Silat Walet Puti Pekanbaru. Journal Of Sport Education (JOPE), 1(1), 22. https://doi.org/10.31258/jope.1.1.22-26

Mountjoy, M., Armstrong, N., Bizzini, L., Blimkie, C., Evans, J., Gerrard, D., Hangen, J., Knoll, K., Micheli, L., Sangenis, P., & Van Mechelen, W. (2008). IOC consensus statement: “training the elite child athlete.” In British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.044016

Mountjoy, M., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Burke, L., Carter, S., Constantini, N., Lebrun, C., Meyer, N., Sherman, R., Steffen, K., Budgett, R., & Ljungqvist, A. (2014). The IOC consensus statement: Beyond the Female Athlete Triad-Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-093502

Mufarriq, M. U. (2021). Membentuk Karakter Pemuda Melalui Pencak Silat. Khazanah Pendidikan Islam, 3(1), 41–53. https://doi.org/10.15575/kp.v3i1.10193
Muhtar, T. (2020). Pencak silat. UPI Sumedang
Press. ournal.ipm2kpe.or.id/index.php/JPJO/article/view/2860
Nattiv, A., Loucks, A. B., Manore, M. M., Sanborn, C. F., Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Warren, M. P. (2007). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The Female Athlete Triad. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e318149f111

Nicholls, A. R., Polman, R. C. J., & Levy, A. R. (2012). A path analysis of stress appraisals, emotions, coping, and performance satisfaction among athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.12.003

Nicholls, A. R., Taylor, N. J., Carroll, S., & Perry, J. L. (2016). The development of a new sport-specific classification of coping and a meta-analysis of the relationship between different coping strategies and moderators on sporting outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01674

Purcell, L. (2005). Sport readiness in children and youth. In Paediatrics and Child Health. https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/10.6.343

Scanlan, T. K., & Lewthwaite, R. (2016). Social Psychological Aspects of Competition for Male Youth Sport Participants: I. Predictors of Competitive Stress. Journal of Sport Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.6.2.208

Seiffge-Krenke, I., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2009). Changes in stress perception and coping during adolescence: The role of situational and personal factors. Child Development. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01258.x



Shields, D. L., Bredemeier, B. L., LaVoi, N. M., & Power, F. C. (2005). THE SPORT BEHAVIOR OF YOUTH , PARENTS , AND COACHES The Good , the Bad , and the Ugly. Journal of Research in Character Education.
Steffen, K., & Engebretsen, L. (2010). More data needed on injury risk among young elite athletes. In British Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2010.073833

Steffen, K., Pensgaard, A. M., & Bahr, R. (2009). Self-reported psychological characteristics as risk factors for injuries in female youth football. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00797.x

Steinacker, J. M., Brkic, M., Simsch, C., Nething, K., Kresz, A., Prokopchuk, O., & Liu, Y. (2005). Thyroid hormones, cytokines, physical training and metabolic control. Hormone and Metabolic Research. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-870419

Ströhle, A. (2019). Sports psychiatry: mental health and mental disorders in athletes and exercise treatment of mental disorders. In European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-018-0891-5

Sukadiyanto. (2015). Perbedaan Reaksi Emosional Antara Olahragawan Body Contact dan Non Body Contact. Jurnal Psikologi (Yogyakarta), 33(1), 50–62. https://doi.org/10.22146/jpsi.7085

Tamminen, K. A., Holt, N. L., & Crocker, P. R. E. (2012). Adolescent athletes: Psychosocial challenges and clinical concerns. In Current Opinion in Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0b013e3283541248

Tenforde, A. S., Barrack, M. T., Nattiv, A., & Fredericson, M. (2016). Parallels with the Female Athlete Triad in Male Athletes. In Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0411-y

Thein-Nissenbaum, J., & Hammer, E. (2017). Treatment strategies for the female athlete triad in the adolescent athlete: current perspectives. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.2147/oajsm.s100026

Topa, G., & Jurado-Del Pozo, J. (2018). Emotional Exhaustion and Health Complaints as Indicators of Occupational Diseases Among Civil Servants in Spain. Journal of Clinical Medicine. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm7120523

Turner, M. J., Jones, M. V., Sheffield, D., Slater, M. J., Barker, J. B., & Bell, J. J. (2013). Who thrives under pressure? Predicting the performance of elite academy cricketers using the cardiovascular indicators of challenge and threat states. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.35.4.387

UU RI. (2005). Undang-undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 3 Tahun 2005 Tentang Sistem Keolahragaan Nasional. https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Home/Details/40234/uu-no-3-tahun-2005



Warren, M. P., & Perlroth, N. E. (2001). The effects of intense exercise on the female reproductive system. Journal of Endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1700003

Wiederhold, B. K., Cipresso, P., Pizzioli, D., Wiederhold, M., & Riva, G. (2018). Intervention for physician burnout: A systematic review. Open Medicine (Poland). https://doi.org/10.1515/med-2018-0039

Williams, P. G., Holmbeck, G. N., & Greenley, R. N. (2002). Adolescent health psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.3.828
Published
2022-05-07
How to Cite
Nugroho, A., Utomo, G., Purwanto, B., & Sulistiawati, S. (2022). Tekanan Kompetisi pada Atlet Remaja Pencak Silat Kategori Tanding: Sebuah Ulasan tentang Pentingnya Peran Orang Tua dan Pelatih. Gelanggang Olahraga: Jurnal Pendidikan Jasmani Dan Olahraga, 5(2), 164-175. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31539/jpjo.v5i2.3226
Abstract viewed = 0 times
pdf downloaded = 0 times